Sheffield's World War 2 Stories

Auschwitz 

From unknown sources

 

The Auschwitz complex of camps encompassed a large industrial area rich in natural resources. There were 48 camps in all. The three main camps were Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II-Birkenau, and a work camp called Auschwitz III-Monowitz, or the Buna. Auschwitz I served as the administrative center, and was the site of the deaths of roughly 70,000 people, mostly ethnic Poles and Soviet prisoners of war. Auschwitz II was an extermination camp or Vernichtungslager, the site of the deaths of at least 960,000 Jews, 75,000 Poles, and some 19,000 Roma (Gypsies). Auschwitz III-Monowitz served as a labor camp for the Buna-Werke factory of the IG Farben concern. The SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps for the Third Reich. The SS-TV was an independent unit within the SS with its own ranks and command structure. Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss was overall commandant of the Auschwitz complex from May 1940–November 1943; Obersturmbannführer Arthur Liebehenschel from November 1943–May 1944; and Sturmbannführer Richard Baer from May 1944–January 1945.

Yisrael Gutman writes that it was in the concentration camps that Hitler's concept of absolute power came to fruition. Primo Levi, who described his year in Auschwitz in If This Is a Man, wrote:

Never has there existed a state that was really "totalitarian." ... Never has some form of reaction, a corrective of the total tyranny, been lacking, not even in the Third Reich or Stalin's Soviet Union: in both cases, public opinion, the magistrature, the foreign press, the churches, the feeling for justice and humanity that ten or twenty years of tyranny were not enough to eradicate, have to a greater or lesser extent acted as a brake. Only in the Lager [camp] was the restraint from below non-existent, and the power of these small satraps absolute.

 Auschwitz 1

Auschwitz I was the original camp, serving as the administrative centre for the whole complex. The site for the camp (16 one-story buildings) had earlier served as Polish army artillery barracks. It was first suggested as a site for a concentration camp for Polish prisoners by SS-Oberfuhrer Arpad Wigand, an aide to Higher SS and Police Leader for Silesia, Erich von dem Bach Zelewski. Bach Zeleski had been searching for a site to house prisoners in the Silesia region as the local prisons were filled to capacity. Richard Glucks, head of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate, sent former Sachsenhausen concentration camp commandant, Walter Eisfeld, to inspect the site. Glucks informed SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler that a camp would be built on the site on 21 February 1940. Rudolf Höss would oversee the development of the camp and serve as the first commandant, SS-Obersturmführer Josef Kramer was appointed Höss's deputy.

Local residents were evicted, including 1,200 people who lived in shacks around the barracks, creating an empty area of 40 km2, which the Germans called the "interest area of the camp". 300 Jewish residents of Oświęcim were brought in to lay foundations. From 1940 to 1941 17 000 Polish and Jewish residents from the western districts of Oświęcim town, from places adjacent to Auschwitz Concentration Camp was expelled. Germans ordered also expulsions from the villages of Broszkowice, Babice, Brzezinka, Rajsko, Pławy, Harmęże, Bór, and Budy. The expulsion of Polish civilians was a step towards establishing the Camp Interest Zone, which was set up to isolate the camp from the outside world and to carry out business activity to meet the needs of the SS. German and Volksdeutsche settlers moved into some buildings whose Jewish population had been deported to the ghetto.

The first prisoners (30 German criminal prisoners from the Sachsenhausen camp) arrived in May 1940, intended to act as functionaries within the prison system. The first transport of 728 Polish prisoners which included 20 Jews arrived on 14 June 1940 from the prison in Tarnow, Poland. They were interned in the former building of the Polish Tobacco Monopoly adjacent to the site, until the camp was ready. The inmate population grew quickly, as the camp absorbed Poland's intelligentsia and dissidents, including the Polish underground resistance. By March 1941, 10,900 were imprisoned there, most of them Poles.

The SS selected some prisoners, often German criminals, as specially privileged supervisors of the other inmates (so-called kapos). Although involved in numerous atrocities, only two Kapos were ever prosecuted for their individual behaviour; many were deemed to have had little choice but to act as they did. The various classes of prisoners were distinguishable by special marks on their clothes; Jews and Soviet prisoners of war were generally treated the worst. All inmates had to work in the associated arms factories, except on Sundays, which were reserved for cleaning and showering. The harsh work requirements, combined with poor nutrition and hygiene, led to high death rates among the prisoners.

Block 11 of Auschwitz was the "prison within the prison", where violators of the numerous rules were punished. Some prisoners were made to spend the nights in "standing cells". These cells were about 1.5 m2 (16 sq ft), and four men would be placed in them; they could do nothing but stand, and were forced during the day to work with the other prisoners. In the basement were located the "starvation cells"; prisoners incarcerated here were given neither food nor water until they were dead.

In the basement were the "dark cells"; these cells had only a very tiny window, and a solid door. Prisoners placed in these cells would gradually suffocate as they used up all of the oxygen in the cell; sometimes the SS would light a candle in the cell to use up the oxygen more quickly. Many were subjected to hanging with their hands behind their backs, thus dislocating their shoulder joints for hours, even days.

On September 3, 1941, deputy camp commandant SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritzsch experimented on 600 Russian POWs and 250 Polish inmates by gathering them in the basement of Block 11 and gassing them with Zyklon B, a highly lethal cyanide-based pesticide. This paved the way for the use of Zyklon B as an instrument for extermination at Auschwitz, and a gas chamber and crematorium were constructed by converting a bunker. This gas chamber operated from 1941 to 1942, during which time some 60,000 people were killed therein; it was then converted into an air-raid shelter for the use of the SS. This gas chamber still exists, together with the associated crematorium, which was reconstructed after the war using the original components, which remained on-site.

 

Auschwitz II-Birkenau


Construction on Auschwitz II-Birkenau, the extermination camp, began in October 1941 to ease congestion at the main camp. It was larger than Auschwitz I, and more people passed through its gates than through Auschwitz I. It was designed to hold several categories of prisoners, and to function as an extermination camp in the context of Heinrich Himmler's preparations for the Final Solution of the Jewish Question, the extermination of the Jews. The first gas chamber at Birkenau was "The Little Red House," a brick cottage converted into a gassing facility by tearing out the inside and bricking up the walls. It was operational by March 1942. A second brick cottage, "The Little White House," was similarly converted some weeks later.

The Nazis had committed themselves to the final solution no later than January 1942, the date of the Wannsee Conference. In his Nuremberg testimony on April 15, 1946, Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz, testified that Heinrich Himmler personally ordered him to prepare Auschwitz for that purpose:

"In the summer of 1941 I was summoned to Berlin to Reichsführer-SS Himmler to receive personal orders. He told me something to the effect—I do not remember the exact words—that the Fuehrer had given the order for a final solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, must carry out that order. If it is not carried out now then the Jews will later on destroy the German people. He had chosen Auschwitz on account of its easy access by rail and also because the extensive site offered space for measures ensuring isolation."

British historian Laurence Rees writes, that Höss may have misremembered the year Himmler said this. Himmler did indeed visit Höss in the summer of 1941, but there is no evidence that the final solution had been planned at this stage. Rees writes that the meeting predates the killings of Jewish men by the Einsatzgruppen in the East and the expansion of the killings in July 1941. It also predates the Wannsee Conference. Rees speculates that the conversation with Himmler was most likely in the summer of 1942. The first gassings, using an industrial gas derived from prussic acid and known by the brand name Zyklon-B, were carried out at Auschwitz in September 1941.

In early 1943, the Nazis decided to increase greatly the gassing capacity of Birkenau. Crematorium II, originally designed as a mortuary, with morgues in the basement and ground-level furnaces, was converted into a killing factory by placing a gas-tight door on the morgues and adding vents for Zyklon B and ventilation equipment to remove the gas. It went into operation in March. Crematorium III was built using the same design. Crematoria IV and V, designed from the start as gassing centres, were also constructed that spring. By June 1943 all four crematoria were operational. Most of the victims were killed during the period afterwards.

The camp was staffed partly by prisoners, some of whom were selected to be kapos (orderlies, most of whom were convicts) and sonderkommandos (workers at the crematoria). The kapos were responsible for keeping order in the barrack huts; the sonderkommandos prepared new arrivals for gassing (ordering them to remove their clothing and surrender their personal possessions) and transferred corpses from the gas chambers to the furnaces, having first pulled out any gold that the victims might have had in their teeth. Members of these groups were killed periodically. The kapossonderkommandos were supervised by members of the SS; altogether 6,000 SS members worked at Auschwitz. 


The largest of the Auschwitz work camps was Auschwitz III-Monowitz, named after the Polish village of Monowice, and regarded from the fall of 1943 onwards as an industrial camp. Starting operations in May 1942, it was associated with the synthetic rubber and liquid fuel plant Buna-Werke owned by IG Farben. 11,000 slave laborers worked at Monowitz. Seven thousand inmates worked at various chemical plants. 8,000 worked in mines. Approximately 40,000 prisoners worked in slave labor camps at Auschwitz or nearby, under appalling conditions. In regular intervals, doctors from Auschwitz II would visit the work camps and select the weak and sick for the gas chambers of Birkenau.

 

Auschwitz

Auschwitz-Birkenau became the killing centre where the largest numbers of European Jews were killed. After an experimental gassing there in September 1941 of 850 malnourished and ill prisoners, mass murder became a daily routine.  By mid 1942, mass gassing of Jews using Zyklon-B began at Auschwitz , where extermination was conducted on an industrial scale with some estimates running as high as three million persons eventually killed through gassing, starvation, disease, shooting, and burning ...

9 out of 10 were Jews. In addition, Gypsies, SovietPOWs, and ill prisoners of all nationalities died in the gas chambers. Between May 14 and July 8,1944, 437,402 Hungarian Jews were deported to Auschwitz in 48 trains. This was probably the largest single mass deportation during the Holocaust.

Auschwitz/Birkenau, Nazi Germany's largest concentration and extermination camp facility, was located nearby the provincial Polish town of Oshwiecim in Galacia. Auschwitz was established by order of Heinrich Himmler on 27 April 1940.

In Hermann Langbein's Menschen in Auschwitz Lucie Adelsberger describes the life of the children at Auschwitz:

"Like the adults, the kids were only a mere bag of bones, without muscles or fat, and the thin skin like pergament scrubbed through and through beyond the hard bones of the skeleton and ignited itself to ulcerated wounds. Abscesses covered the underfed body from the top to the bottom and thus deprived it from the last rest of energy. The mouth was deeply gnawed by noma-abscesses, hollowed out the jaw and perforated the cheeks like cancer.

Many decaying bodies were full of water because of the burning hunger, they swelled to shapeless bulks which could not move anymore. Diarrhoea, lasting for weeks, dissolved their irresistant bodies until nothing remained .."                  

At Auschwitz children were generally killed upon arrival. Children born in the camps were generally killed on the spot.

So called camp doctors, especially the notorious Josef Mengele, would torture Jewish children, Gypsy children and many others. "Patients" were put into pressure chambers, tested with drugs, castrated, frozen to death, and exposed to various other traumas.

A survivor, Eva Mozes Kor, later recalled how a set of Gypsy twins was brought back from Mengele's lab after they were sewn back to back. Mengele had attempted to create a Siamese twin by connecting blood vessels and organs. The twins screamed day and night until gangrene set in, and after three days, they died ...


At Auschwitz Professor Carl Clauberg injected chemical substances into wombs during his experiments. Thousands of Jewish and Gypsy women were subjected to this treatment. They were sterilized by the injections, producing horrible pain, inflamed ovaries, bursting spasms in the stomach, and bleeding. Men and women were positioned repeatedly for several minutes between two x-ray machines aimed at their sexual organs. Most subjects died or were gassed immediately. Men's testicles were removed and sent to Breslau for histopathological examination.


Likewise at Auschwitz Dr. Herta Oberhauser killed children with oil and evipan injections, removed their limbs and vital organs, rubbed ground glass and sawdust into wounds.

Near the end of the war, in order to cut expenses and save gas, "cost- accountant considerations" led to an order to place living children directly into the ovens or throw them into open burning pits.





After WW2, in October of 1946, the Nuremberg Medical Trial began, lasting until August of 1947. Twenty-tree German physicians and scientists were accused of performing vile and potentially lethal medical experiments on concentration camps inmates and other living human subjects between 1933 and 1945. Mengele was not amongst the accused.

Fifteen defendants were found guilty, and eight were acquitted. Of the 15, seven were given the death penalty and eight imprisoned. Herta Oberhauser, the doctor who had rubbed crushed glass and sawdust into the wounds of her subjects, received a 20 year sentence but was released in April 1952 and became a family doctor at Stocksee in Germany. Her license to practice medicine was revoked in 1958.

Carl Clauberg was put to trial in the Soviet Union and sentenced to 25 years. 7 years later, he was pardonned under the "returnee" arrangement between Bonn and Moscow and went back to West Germany. Upon returning he held a press conference and boasted of his scientific work at Auschwitz. After survivor groups protested, Clauberg was finally arrested in 1955 but died in August 1957, shortly before his trial should have started.

After the war it appeared that only one man managed to get prisoners out of Auschwitz, the Gate to Hell - Oscar Schindler, one remarkable man who outwitted Adolf Hitler and the Nazis to save more Jews from the gas chambers than most of the heroic rescuers during WWII ...



Source: The Archives of

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

 

Zyklon B is a cyanide-based poisonous gas which interferes with cellular respiration. Specifically, it prevents the cell from producing ATP by binding to the one of the proteins involved in the electron transport chain. This protein, cytochrome c oxidase, contains several subunits and has ligands containing iron groups. At one of these iron groups, heme a3, the cyanide component of Zyklon B can bind, forming a more stabilized compound through metal-to-ligand pi bonding. As a result of this new iron-cyanide complex, the electrons which would situate themselves on the heme a3 group can no longer do so. Instead, because of the new bond formed between the iron and the cyanide, these electrons would actually destabilize the compound (based on molecular orbital theory); thus, the heme group will no longer accept them. Consequently, electron transport is halted, and the cell can no longer produce the energy needed to synthesize ATP. 

Use By The Nazis

Zyklon B was used by Nazi Germany to poison prisoners in the gas chambers of their network of extermination camps throughout Europe. Zyklon B was used at Auschwitz Birkenau, Majdanek, Sachsenhausen and one of the Operation Reinhard camps [which one?]. At the other extermination camps, carbon monoxide from engine exhaust was used in the gas chambers or mobile gas vans. Most of the victims were Jews and the Zyklon B gas became a central symbol of the Holocaust.

Zyklon B was used in the concentration camps also for delousing to control typhus. The chemical used in the gas chambers was deliberately made without the warning odorant. In quantitative terms, more than 95% of the Zyklon B delivered to Auschwitz was used for delousing and less than 5% in the homicidal gas chambers.

In January or February 1940, 250 Gypsy children from Brno in the Buchenwald concentration camp were used as guinea pigs for testing the Zyklon B gas. On September 3, 1941, around 600 Soviet prisoners of war and 250 sick Polish prisoners were gassed with Zyklon B at Auschwitz camp I; this was the first experiment with the gas at Auschwitz. The experiments lasted more than 20 hours.

According to Rudolf Höss, commandant of Auschwitz, bunker 1 held 800 people, and bunker 2 held 1,200. Once the chamber was full, the doors were screwed shut and solid pellets of Zyklon B were dropped into the chambers through vents in the side walls, releasing the cyanide gas. Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to Höss, who estimated that about one third of the victims died immediately. Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: "Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives." When they were removed, if the chamber had been very congested, as they often were, the victims were found half-squatting, their skin coloured pink with red and green spots, some foaming at the mouth or bleeding from the ears.

 

 

Medical Experiments

 During the reign of Adolf Hitler Europe was taken into a state of chaos. Doctors were called to the extermination camps such as Auschwitz and Dachau. The reason was simple to them. They thought they were there to try to unlock secrets of genetic engineering but today it seems they were there just to kill camp inmates as painfully as possible. People have called these horrific experiments "The results of some peoples ambitious and zealousness  to the Nazi vision of Ayran supremacy."

EXPERIMENTS

FREEZING/ HYPOTHERMIA
These experiments were divided into two parts. First to see the time it takes to lower the body temperature until death will come. Next, was to see how best to revive the frozen victims. These experiments were held to try and stimulate the conditions that the German soldiers were suffering on the Eastern front. Some patients were placed into icy vats  full of cold water. While others were strapped to stretchers and placed outside in Auschwitz's sub-zero temperatures, naked. Most victims died or lost consciousness when their body temperature dropped to 25 degrees Celsius.  


During the reign of Adolf Hitler Europe was taken into a state of chaos. Doctors were called to the extermination camps such as Auschwitz and Dachau. The reason was simple to them. They thought they were there to try to unlock secrets of genetic engineering but today it seems they were there just to kill camp inmates as painfully as possible. People have called these horrific experiments "The results of some peoples ambitious and zealousness  to the Nazi vision of Ayran supremacy."   

EXPERIMENTS

FREEZING/ HYPOTHERMIA 
These experiments were divided into two parts. First to see the time it takes to lower the body temperature until death will come. Next, was to see how best to revive the frozen victims. These experiments were held to try and stimulate the conditions that the German soldiers were suffering on the Eastern front. Some patients were placed into icy vats  full of cold water. While others were strapped to stretchers and placed outside in Auschwitz's sub-zero temperatures, naked. Most victims died or lost consciousness when their body temperature dropped to 25 degrees Celsius.  

SUN LAMP

Many experiments were conducted to try to find a way of reviving the victims that survived the freezing experiments. One test was called the Sun Lamp. Patients were placed under lamps that were extremely hot and would sometimes burn the skin. One young man was repeatedly cooled to unconsciousness then revived by the Sun Lamps until he was pouring sweat. He died after many tests were taken.

HOT BATH
This method seemed to prove the best way to revive victims after their body temperature was cooled. The patients were placed in warm water that would slowly increase, and raise the body temperature. If the water was too hot the victim would die from shock. One other method, that was suggested by Heinrich Himmler, was to try to use women to warm some of the frozen victims. There was some successes in this, but it was not as efficient as the Hot Bath.

INTERNAL IRRIGATION
For this experiment water was heated to a hot temperature that was close to blistering. Then the doctors would forcefully irrigate this hot water into the frozen victim's stomach, bladder, and their intestines. All of the victims appear to have died from this testing.

GENETIC EXPERIMENTS
These experiments were very broad and specialized. They were conducted to "refine the master race" and to determine the causes of defects. Dr. Josef Mengele's research on the twins and other Auschwitz inmates  was based on genetics.
Dr. Josef Mengele began his research in May of 1943 at Auschwitz, Poland. Mengele's experiments were funded   through a grant by the German Research Council.  He was fascinated by twins, dwarfs, cripples, and what he called " exotic specimens". Mengele had a special   likeness for the younger twins. He was known to give them special care, like extra food and clothing and he allowed them to keep their hair. He would even give them candy when they were corporative. Despite the fact that some survivors can call him a nice man that would act like their father, Mengele is more famously known as the "Angel of Death".


Mengele was also fascinated by eyes and eye color. Mengele tried to change the color of  patients eyes genetically by injecting dye into their eyes. This usually resulted in painful infections and even blindness. After a victim would die, he took out their eyes and would tack them onto the wall in his office. He would also take blood samples from one twin then put the sample in the other twin. This mostly caused headaches and high fevers for several days. Mengele placed patients in isolation cages and subjected them to a variety of stimuli just to see their reactions. He would inject twins with infectious agents to watch how long it takes to succumb to various diseases. He removed victims limbs in surgical procedures with out any anesthetic. Mengele also castrated and sterilized almost all of the twins. After Mengele collected all the data he wanted from a patient, they were killed by a single injection of chloroform in the heart. He would take special care to make sure that twins were killed at the same time. Then they were dissected and their organs were taken to research centers.

HUNGARIAN TWINS

One pair of unfortunate Hungarian twins arrived at Auschwitz late in 1943. They were taken to Josef Mengele right away. The pair was described as athletic, handsome, around the age of eighteen, and of having lots of body hair. Mengele took several days to examine the Hungarian twins. He had their whole body closely measured and x-rayed and had them be photographed in several different positions including standing with their arms up in order to photograph their underarm hair. He then had tubes forced down their noses and into their lungs and then they were ventilated with gas. This caused them to cough so badly that they had to be restrained. The twin's saliva was collected  and examined.

For the experiment the twins were set in hot water until they almost passed out. Then Mengele had them strapped onto tables and had their hair plucked out; they had to be placed back into the hot water several times. Next, they were totally shaven off of any hair that was still remaining and photographed again. After many other traumas, that were quite disgusting, the pair of young Hungarians were injected in there hearts with poison. They were dead after only three weeks at Auschwitz. Their organs were dissected and sent to the Institute of Biological Racial and Evolutionary Research in Berlin.


 

Dr. Herta Oberheuser, in order to kill them, would inject oil and evipan into children's blood streams. While the children were still conscious, she removed their vital organs and limbs with no anesthetics. They usually had about 3-5 minutes before death would come. Herta also focused on inflicting wounds that were similar to the wounds the German soldiers got on patients. She would then rub objects such as; glass, wood, rusty nails, and sawdust into the wounds.  Herta was the only female defendant at the Nuremberg Medical Trials. She received a 20 year sentence, but only served 10. After being released in the April of 1952, she became a family doctor in Stocksee, Germany. Her license was revoked in 1958.

 

DR. JOHANN KREMER
Dr. Johann Kremer replaced a sick doctor on August 30, 1942 at Auschwitz. Kremer's job was to carry out assessments of prisoners trying to gain entrance into the hospital; he ordered most of them to be killed by phenol injection. Kremer would often question prisoners before they were injected. He asked things like their weight before imprisonment and what medicines taken before imprisonment. He then would sometimes have them photographed. Kremer kept a diary of the gassings he witnessed at Auschwitz. Here is one entry:

September 5, 1942

     "In the morning attended a special action* from the women's concentration camp (Muslims*); the most dreadful of horrors. ... In the evening towards 8:00 attended another special action from Holland. Because of the special rations they get a fifth of a liter of schnapps, 5 cigarettes, 100g Salami and bread, the men all clamor to take part in such actions. Today and tomorrow (Sunday) work."
* the gassings were referred to as "special actions"
* the women's camp was generally known as "Muslims"

 

DR. KARL BRANDT

Dr. Karl Brandt was Hitler's personal physician and the became the highest authority, the Reich Commissioner for Sanitation and Health. Karl participated in the euthanasia program which was the execution by gas or lethal injections in nursing homes, hospitals, and asylums to the aged, the insane, the incurably ill, and deformed children. Brandt called them "useless eaters" that burdened the German war machine. Brandt was found guilty of war crimes at the Nuremberg Medical Trials and was executed on June 2, 1948, at Landsburg prison in Bavaria.

 Dr. Carl Clauberg arrived at Auschwitz in the December of 1942; he received Block 10 for his medical experiments. Clauberg injected chemical substances into wombs of thousands of Jewish and Gypsy women. The injections caused them sterilization, horrible pain, inflamed ovaries, bursting spasms in their stomachs, and bleeding. Clauberg also repeatedly placed men and women between two x-ray machines for several minutes, resulting in radiation burns that made them either unfit for work and to be gassed or they would die from the burns. He was sentenced to twenty-five years in a Soviet Union Trial but after seven years he was pardoned.  Clauberg then held a press conference where he boasted about his scientific work at Auschwitz. Survivor groups protested and Clauberg was arrested in 1955 and died in the August of 1957 shortly before his trial was to begin.

 

OTHER NAZI DOCTORS AND PERPETRATORS

Irma Grese

*known as the " Blond Angel of Death"

*was concentration camp guard and in charge of 18,000 female prisoners

*helped with the removal of women's breasts 

*had many affairs with the doctors at Auschwitz, including Mengele

Frau Ilse

*collected skin of prisoners, dead and alive, if they had a tattoo she liked

*turned skin into book covers, gloves, lampshades, and other furniture

Dr. Sigmund Rascher

*in charge of the military medical experiments; such as the Hypothermia and High Altitude experiments

*split open skulls, while patients were alive and conscious, to examine effects of experiments

Dr. Philip Bouhler *head of euthanasia program with Himmler
Dr. Leonardo Counti *killed large number of Germans with "unsound minds"

Dr. Seigfried Handloser

*chief doctor at Buchenwald
Dr. Klaus Schilling

*in charge of the malaria experiments

*injected tropical diseases into patients

Dr. Bruno Weber

*tried to brain wash and use mind control on patients by giving them high doses of morphine

Dr. Julius Hallervorden

*examined brains of people in the euthanasia program

 

THE CAMPS AND THEIR EXPERIMENTS

Auschwitz

*blood experiments

*live vivisections

*cyanide salts injected

*Hepatitis experiments

*electroshock therapy

*punctured children's livers or removed them

*put lead into various parts of bodies

*Noma experiments

Buchenwald

*skinned for tattoos

*Yellow Fever, smallpox, paratyphoid A&B, cholera, and TB was injected into patients

*tried curing homosexuality by horrific experiments

*injected fresh blood into typhus patients

*burned patients were injected with poison in their wounds

Dachau

*Hypothermia experiments

*High Altitude experiments

*patients injected with Malaria

* people were experimented on more than once for different experiments

Ravensbruck

*wounds inflicted with gang grene

*transplantation of bones

*sterilization of women

Sachenhausen

*Gypsies pumped full of poison bullets

*jaundice and other diseases injected into patients

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